Darlington, County Durham born outside left Adam Henderson began his football career in Scotland with junior club Airdrie Fruitfield in 1891 before joining Airdrieonians in 1892. He joined the exodus of Scottish based players to the English Leagues when he joined First Division Preston North End in March 1894, making his Football League debut at Nottingham Forest the same month and scoring in their Test Match win over Notts County that confirmed they stayed in the First Division. He was then a regular in The Lambs’ first team for three further seasons, scoring 31 goals in 86 appearances before signing for Glasgow Celtic in May 1897.
He had a single season at Celtic, making his senior debut for The Bhoys in a 4-1 League win over Hibernian at Celtic Park on September 9th. Henderson impressed with his overall play and underlined his threat to the opposition by hitting a brace in that match with 5 goals in 10 League & Scottish Cup appearances for Celtic, helping Celtic win the 1897-98 Scottish League Championship, before he returned south to join Birmingham & District League club Bristol St George in May 1898.
After a spell later the same year with Southern League club Gravesend United, he re-joined Preston North End in the summer of 1899 and was a regular in their first team until December 1900, scoring 14 goals, including a hat-trick in a 5-2 win over West Bromwich Albion in February 1900, in a further 45 appearances for North End before his retirement from the game.